# The new pH of the soil sample is?

Acid rain is a problem in industrialized countries around the world. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen are formed when various fuels are burned. These oxides dissolve in atmospheric water droplets that fall to earth as acid rain or acid snow.

While normal rain has a pH between 5.0 and 6.0 due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide, acid rain often has a pH of 4.0 or lower. This level of acidity can damage trees and plants, leach minerals from the soil, and cause the death of aquatic animals and plants.

If the pH of the soil is too low, then quicklime, CaO, can be added to the soil to increase the pH. Quicklime produces calcium hydroxide when it dissolves in water.

Base your answer to the question on the passage.

A sample of wet soil has a pH of 4.0. After the addition of quicklime, the H+ ion concentration of the soil is 1/100 of the original H+ ion concentration of the soil.

The new pH of the soil sample is?

• pH = -log(H+ concentration)

plug 4 in for the pH and solve for the original H+ concentration

You end up with .0001 M

divide that 100 you get .000001 M

take the log of that and change the sign so your new pH is 6.

• 6.0

pH is the negative log base 10 of the concentration of H+. By decreasing the concentration of hydrogen ions to 1/100th, the log count has changed by exactly 2.

Original [H+] = X. After liming, [H+] = X/100.

Original pH=-log X. After liming pH = -log (X/100) = -log X - log (1/100) = -log X + log(100) = -log X + 2

• pH = 6.0

The pH scale is logarithmic which means that a pH of 5 has 1/10 times the H+ of 4.0. This means that 6.0 has 1/100 times that of 4.0.

• ph = -log H+

4.0 = - log H+

10 ^-4 = H+

(1/100) x (10 ^ -4) = 1 x 10 ^ -6

Ph = - log H+

Ph = - log 1 x 10 ^ -6

PH = 6

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