What is the difference between glucogen and glycogen?

6 Answers

  • I believe you mean glucagon instead of glucogen. Glucagon is a hormone that is produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas and works in opposition to insulin. That is, glucagon INCREASES blood glucose by activating breakdown of liver glycogen and enhancing liver glucose synthesis ( gluconeogenesis ). Glycogen is a polymer of glucose molecules hooked together alpha 1,4 and alpha 1,6. The berakdown of glycogen stimulated by glucagon or adrenaline , etc ..is called glycogenolysis.

  • Both are carbohydrates (carbon/hydrogen/oxygen). One of the simplest carbohydrates and a building block of other carbohydrates is glucose. Glycogen is five glucose molecules linked. Glycogen is the carbohydrate form in which the body stores fuel in the liver and muscles for metabolism (body energy). Cellulose, by contrast, is a long chain (from several hundred up to thousands) of glucose molecules, the product of plant growth. In food, it requires complex digestion to be used as energy. For example: cows can eat cellulose (in hay) because they have a digestion process that breaks down the cellulose bond. Humans don't digest cellulose, but it is still important as a part of our digestion. In its fiber forms, cellulose is in clothing (cotton and rayon), buildings (wood), and plants.

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    Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants. Glycogen is synthesized and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles. Structurally, glycogen is very similar to amylopectin with alpha acetal linkages, however, it has even more branching and more glucose units are present than in amylopectin. Various samples of glycogen have been measured at 1,700-600,000 units of glucose. The structure of glycogen consists of long polymer chains of glucose units connected by an alpha acetal linkage. The graphic on the left shows a very small portion of a glycogen chain. All of the monomer units are alpha-D-glucose, and all the alpha acetal links connect C # 1 of one glucose to C # 4 of the next glucose. Cellulose is found in plants as microfibrils (2-20 nm diameter and 100 - 40 000 nm long). These form the structurally strong framework in the cell walls. Cellulose (E460) is mostly prepared from wood pulp. Cellulose is also produced in a highly hydrated form by some bacteria (for example, Acetobacter xylinum). Cellulose is a linear polymer of β-(14)-D-glucopyranose units in 4C1 conformation. The fully equatorial conformation of β-linked glucopyranose residues stabilizes the chair structure, minimizing its flexibility (for example, relative to the slightly more flexible α-linked glucopyranose residues in amylose). Cellulose preparations may contain trace amounts (~0.3%) of arabinoxylans. Cellulose has many uses as an anticake agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, dispersing agent, thickener, and gelling agent but these are generally subsidiary to its most important use of holding on to water. Water cannot penetrate crystalline cellulose but dry amorphous cellulose absorbs water becoming soft and flexible. Some of this water is non-freezing but most is simply trapped. Less water is bound by direct hydrogen bonding if the cellulose has high crystallinity but some fibrous cellulose products can hold on to considerable water in pores and its typically straw-like cavities; water holding ability correlating well with the amorphous (surface area effect) and void fraction (that is, the porosity). As such water is supercoolable, this effect may protect against ice damage. Cellulose can give improved volume and texture particularly as a fat replacer in sauces and dressings but its insolubility means that all products will be cloudy. Swelled bacterial cellulose (ex. Acetobacter xylinum), in its never-dried state with much smaller fibrils (~1%) than from plants, exhibits pseudoplastic viscosity like xanthan gels but this viscosity is not lost at high temperatures and low shear rates as the cellulose can retain its structure. Where individual cellulose strands are surrounded by water they are flexible and do not present contiguous hydrophobic surfaces. Bacterial cells may be removed by hot alkali and the clean wet cellulose used as a substrate for immobilizing biomolecules [843] or for covering wounds [844]. On drying the properties of bacterial cellulose irreversibly lose their hydrated properties and tend to those of plant cellulose.

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